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应该知道关于猴痘的什么

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What is monkeypox?
Monkeypox is a rare viral disease that occurs mostly in central and western Africa. It is called “monkeypox” because it was first found in 1958 in laboratory monkeys. Blood tests of animals in Africa later found that other types of animals probably had monkeypox. Scientists also recovered the virus that causes monkeypox from an African squirrel. These types of squirrels might be the common host for the disease. Rats, mice, and rabbits can get monkeypox, too. Monkeypox was reported in humans for the first time in 1970.

什么是猴痘?
猴痘是一种罕见的病毒疾病,大多发生在中部和西部非洲。被称作“猴痘”是因为1958年第一次在实验室猴子身上发现它。对非洲动物的血液测试发现其他种类的动物可能有猴痘。科学家也从一种非洲松鼠身上发现导致猴痘的病毒。这些类型的松鼠可能是这种疾病的共同宿主。田鼠、老鼠和野兔也能携带猴痘。1970年首次报道在人类发现猴痘。

Is there monkeypox in the United States?
In early June 2003, monkeypox was reported among several people in the United States. Most of these people got sick after having contact with pet prairie dogs that were sick with monkeypox. This is the first time that there has been an outbreak of monkeypox in the United States.

在美国有猴痘吗?
2003年六月初,在美国有数人被报道患有猴痘。这些人大多数在接触患有猴痘的草原宠物狗后发病。这是第一次在美国发生猴痘。

What causes monkeypox?
The disease is caused by Monkeypox virus. It belongs to a group of viruses that includes the smallpox virus (variola), the virus used in the smallpox vaccine (vaccinia), and the cowpox virus.

什么造成猴痘?
这种疾病由猴痘病毒造成。它属于一个包括天花病毒、在天花疫苗中采用的病毒和牛痘病毒的病毒组。

What are the signs and symptoms of monkeypox?
In humans, the signs and symptoms of monkeypox are like those of smallpox, but usually they are milder. Another difference is that monkeypox causes the lymph nodes to swell.

About 12 days after people are infected with the virus, they will get a fever, headache, muscle aches, and backache; their lymph nodes will swell; and they will feel tired. One to 3 days (or longer) after the fever starts, they will get a rash. This rash develops into raised bumps filled with fluid and often starts on the face and spreads, but it can start on other parts of the body too. The bumps go through several stages before they get crusty, scab over, and fall off. The illness usually lasts for 2 to 4 weeks.

猴痘的表现和症状是什么?
在人类身上,猴痘的表现和症状类似天花,但通常较轻。另一个区别是猴痘使淋巴结肿大。人感染病毒约12天后出现发烧、头痛、肌肉痛和背痛;淋巴结肿大;病人感到疲乏。在发烧开始的1-3天(或更长)后,出现皮疹。这些皮疹发展成为充满液体的凸起小肿块,通常开始于脸部并蔓延,但也能在身体的其他部位开始。小肿块经过几个阶段直到它们变硬,结痂和脱落。病情经常持续2-4周。

Can you die from monkeypox?
In Africa, monkeypox has killed between 1 percent and 10 percent of people who get it. However, this risk would probably be lower in the United States, where nutrition and access to medical care are better.

得了猴痘会死吗?
在非洲,猴痘已杀死1%-10%得了这种病的人。然而,这种风险在美国可能会低些,在美国营养和获得医疗护理都要好些。

How do you catch monkeypox?
People can get monkeypox from an animal with monkeypox if they are bitten or if they touch the animal’s blood, body fluids, or its rash. The disease also can spread from person to person through large respiratory droplets during long periods of face-to-face contact or by touching body fluids of a sick person or objects such as bedding or clothing contaminated with the virus.

怎样会得猴痘?
如果人被有猴痘的动物咬伤或接触这些动物的血液、体液或皮疹都会患猴痘。这种病也能在人与人之间传播,如通过长时间面对面接触时的呼吸飞沫,或接触病人体液或被病毒污染的床单或衣物等物品。

How do you treat monkeypox?
There is no specific treatment for monkeypox. In Africa, people who got the smallpox vaccine in the past had a lower risk of monkeypox. CDC has sent out explaining when smallpox vaccine should be used to protect against monkeypox. For example, people taking care of someone infected with monkeypox should think about getting vaccinated. Contact your state or local health department for more information.

怎样治疗猴痘?
对猴痘没有专门的治疗手段。在非洲,以前得过猴痘的人患猴痘的风险较低。CDC已发布解释何时天花疫苗应被用于预防猴痘的指导原则。例如,感染猴痘的照料者应考虑进行预防接种。更多信息请联系你所在的州或地方医疗部门。
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